Glossary

A | C | D | E | F | I | L | N | P | Q | R | S | T | V | W

A

ACPA

Animal Care and Protection Act 2001

Activity leader

A person approved by an animal ethics committee to be responsible for the conduct of an approved project involving animals

Alternatives

Procedures or approaches that are preferred above others because they replace, reduce or refine the use of animals

Anaesthesia

General or local insensibility, as to pain and other sensation, induced by certain drugs

Analgesia

Absence of sense of pain

Animal

Under the Queensland Animal Care and Protection Act 2001 (ACPA), an animal is any live vertebrate and cephalopods. This includes amphibians, birds, fish, mammals (other than humans), reptiles and cephalopods (octopus, squid, cuttlefish and nautilus). Animals also include live prenatal or prehatched creatures in the last half of gestation, including mammalian or reptilian foetus, prehatched avian, mammalian or reptilian young (eggs), and live marsupial young. Also included as animals are livestock, companion animals, laboratory animals, wildlife, pests, feral animals and zoo animals. However, what are not animals under the ACPQ are invertebrates other than cephalopods; humans including human foetus; the eggs, spat or spawn of fish; and immature amphibians and fish prior to final metamorphosis (e.g. fish fry and tadpoles).

Animal ethics

A framework in which actions can be considered as good or bad, right or wrong. Ethics is applied in the evaluation of what should or should not be done when animals are proposed for use, or are used, for scientific purposes.

Animal Ethics Committee (AEC)

A committee formed in accordance with the terms of reference, membership and other requirements under the Australian Code of Practice for the Care and Use of Animals for Scientific Purposes

Animal welfare

See Welfare

Appropriate

In relation to duty of care, means with regard to the species, environment and circumstances of the animal, and the steps a reasonable person in the circumstances would reasonably be expected to have taken

ANZCCART

Australian and New Zealand Council for the Care of Animals in Research and Teaching Ltd

Approved project

A project for animal use that has been formally approved by a properly constituted AEC on the basis of a written proposal

Authorised officer

A person appointed as an authorised officer under the Animal Care and Protection Act 2001

AWAC

Animal Welfare Advisory Committee - a body to advise the minister on animal welfare issues

AWC

Animal Welfare Committee - a national government committee

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C

Cephalopod

A member of the class Cephalopoda, the most highly organised class of molluscs - including the cuttlefish, squid, octopus and nautilus - the members of which have tentacles attached to the head

Codes of practice

Codes that outline acceptable practices for particular species or animal use

Custody

With regard to an animal, includes care and control of the animal

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D

Death as an end point

When the death of an animal is the deliberate measure used to evaluate biological or chemical processes, responses or effects;That is, where the investigator or teacher will not intervene to kill the animal humanely before death occurs in the course of a scientific activity.

Disqualifying event

A conviction for an animal welfare offence; the cancellation or suspension, under the Animal Care and Protection Act 2001; the cancellation or suspension, under a law of another state or the Commonwealth, of an authority, instrument, licence permit or registration, however called, that is the same as or similar to registration under the Animal Care and Protection Act 2001

Distress

An acute or a chronic response of an animal caused by stimuli that produce biological stress, which manifests as observable, abnormal physiological or behavioural responses

Duty of care

A requirement under the Animal Care and Protection Act 2001 that a person in charge of an animal must take reasonable steps to provide appropriately for the animal's needs relating to:

  • food and water
  • accommodation or living conditions
  • treatment of disease or injury
  • the display of normal patterns of behaviour
  • appropriate handling of an animal.

The duty of care is a legal obligation on persons in charge of an animal under the Animal Care and Protection Act 2001.

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E

Environmental enrichment

Modification of the physical environment of animals, especially those in captivity, for the purpose of meeting behavioural needs and improving wellbeing

Ethics

A system of moral principles by which human actions and proposals may be judged good or bad, or right or wrong

Euthanasia

The humane killing of an animal in the interests of its own welfare to alleviate pain and distress

Executive officer (of a corporation)

A person who is concerned with or takes part in a corporation's management, whether or not the person is a director or the person's position is given the title of executive officer

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F

Five freedoms (as defined by the British Farm Animal Welfare Council 1992)

Freedom from:

  • hunger and thirst
  • discomfort
  • pain, injury and disease
  • fear and distress.

Includes freedom to display normal behaviour.

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H

Humane

Characterised by tenderness and compassion for the suffering or distressed

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I

Inspector

A person appointed as an inspector under the Animal Care and Protection Act 2001

Investigator

Any person who uses animals for scientific purposes, particularly for research or testing

In vitro
In an artificial environment, as a test tube
In vivo

Within a living organism

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L

Livestock

All classes of cattle, sheep, goats, pig, horses, poultry, emus, ostrich, alpaca, deer, camel and buffalo

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N

NCCAW
National Consultative Committee on Animal Welfare
NHMRC

National Health and Medical Research Council

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P

Pain

An unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. It may elicit protective actions, result in learned avoidance and distress, and may modify species-specific traits of behaviour, including social behaviour.

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Q

Quorum

The number of members of a body required to be present to transact business legally. For an animal ethics committee, a quorum is the presence at the meeting of at least one member from each of Categories A,B,C and D as defined in the Australian Code of Practice for the Care and Use of Animals for Scientific Purposes.

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R

RSPCA

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Inc. In Queensland, this is the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animal (Queensland) Inc.

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S

Scientific purposes

Activities performed to acquire, develop or demonstrate knowledge or techniques in any area of science, including teaching, field trials, environmental studies, research, diagnosis, product teasting and production of biological products. Scientific purposes also include using any animal or the remains of an animal that was killed for the purposes of any of the above. Anyone using animals for scientific purposes must be registered with Biosecurity Queensland - Animal Welfare and Ethics and obtain approval from an animal ethics committee. What are not considered scientific purposes are fish tagging, bird banding and diagnosis by a veterinarian within routine veterinary practice, or biosecurity inspectors undertaking a disease response.

Scientific Use Code

The most recent edition or revision of the Australian Code of Practice for the Care and Use of Animals for Scientific Purposes, published by or for the National Health and Medical Research Council

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T

Teacher

Any person who uses animals to develop, impart or demonstrate knowledge or techniques in a scientific discipline to meet an educational objective. Includes primary and secondary school teachers and tertiary teachers.

Three Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement)

In the use of animals for scientific purposes, this refers to:

  • the replacement of animals with other methods
  • the reduction in the number of animals used
  • the refinement of techniques used to reduce the impact on animals.

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V

Vertebrate animal

An animal with a backbone or spinal column, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish

Veterinary surgeon

A person registered as a veterinary surgeon under the Queensland Veterinary Surgeons Act 1936

Voucher specimen

Any specimen, usually but not always a dead animal, that serves as a basis of study and is retained as a reference. 'Type' specimen is a particular voucher specimen that serves as a basis for taxonomic description of that subspecies.

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W

Welfare

How an animal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. An animal is in a good state of welfare if (as indicated by scientific evidence) it is healthy, comfortable, well nourished, safe, able to express innate behaviour, and not suffering from unpleasant states, such as pain, fear, and distress. Good animal welfare requires disease prevention and veterinary treatment, appropriate shelter, management, nutrition, humane handling and humane slaughter/killing. Animal welfare refers only to the state of the animal; the treatment that an animal receives is covered by other terms, such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane treatment. (Reference: OIE definition of animal welfare adopted by formal Resolution at 76th OIE General Session, Paris May 2008).

Wildlife

Free-living animals of native, non-indigenous or feral species, including captive-bred animals and those captured from free-living populations

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Last updated 04 September 2012