The 'three Rs' is a basic philosophy of animal ethics and refers to the principles of replacement, reduction, and refinement.
In accordance with the Australian Code of Practice for the Care and Use of Animals for Scientific Purposes, when assessing proposals to use animals for scientific purposes, animal ethics committees will require evidence that the investigator or teacher has considered the replacement, reduction and refinement of animal use in their proposal.
Alternatives to animal use
Non-alternatives to animal use can replace or reduce the number of animals used to meet scientific or educational objectives.
Implementing the 3 Rs
Implementing the 3 Rs (replacement, reduction, refinement)
Environmental envirchment for scientific animal use