Stem end rot
In fruit from drier areas, stem end rot may be a more serious post-harvest disease than anthracnose in mangoes. Anthracnose disease (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) may cause similar symptoms.
The fungi Dothiorella dominicana, Phomopsis spp., Botryodiplodia theobromae and Lasiodiplodia theobromae cause stem end rot in mango and avocado.
A dark rot develops from the stem end as fruit ripen after harvest. A dark brown to black rot begins at the stem end as a dark brown ring and the rot proceeds towards the other end. The rot produces dark streaking of the water-conducting tissues (this symptom distinguishes stem end rot from anthracnose).
|How does it spread|
These fungi are natural inhabitants on the branches of the mango tree and grow into the stem of the fruit before harvest. Fruit placed on the ground for desapping can also be infected from the bark, twig litter or the soil.
Mango, avocado, citrus.
As water stress during fruit development may predispose fruit to infection, manage irrigation and root rot control carefully. Pre-harvest sprays of fungicides to control bacterial black spot or anthracnose may reduce the incidence of stem-end rot in fruit. Prune trees to improve ventilation and spray penetration. Remove dead branches from trees.
Avoid harvesting immature fruit. Cool fruit immediately after harvest and store in well-ventilated containers.
The severity of stem end rot can be assessed as follows:
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