The Haden mango variety originated in Florida, United States, and was introduced into Australia in the early 1970s. Captain John Haden first selected Haden, a seedling of Mulgoba, in 1902. The pollen parent of this variety is thought to have been a turpentine variety that was widely grown in Florida at the time.
Haden has become a major commercial variety in many countries around the world. It is prized for its golden-yellow skin colour and crimson red blush. In Australia, Haden is only a minor variety in the Australian market, however it is grown in Mexico and some South American countries for export.
Haden is a medium-to-large, vigorous tree with a dense spreading canopy. The newly emerging leaves are initially light green, turning a light brown colour as they expand and finally a dark green when they are fully mature. Six-year-old trees can reach heights of 6 m or greater if left unpruned, with diameters of 4-6 m.
- panicle* length - 40-45 cm
- panicle width - 20 cm
- hair density - heavy
- colour - faint pink
- colour of wilted petals - brown.
* Refer to Glossary
- fruit shape - ovate round
- ground colour - golden yellow
- blush - crimson
- weight - 350-650 g (avg. 301 g)
- average length - 90 mm
- average width - 66 mm
- average depth - 74 mm
- lenticels size - Large
- lenticel colour - yellow/white
- flesh colour - orange/yellow
- skin thickness - medium to thick
- flesh fibre - medium to low
- firmness - medium to firm
- stem end shape - level
- beak shape - none to slight
- flesh recovery - 66 per cent
- flavour - rich and sweet, sightly turpentine near the skin
- embryo type - monoembryonic*.
* Refer to Glossary
Haden is a monoembryonic mango variety, which means that the seed, if planted, will not produce a seedling that fruits true to type. Propagation is usually done by grafting on to a uniform polyembryonic* rootstock. Kensington Pride and Common are the most widely used rootstock in Australia.
* Refer to Glossary
Because of Haden's spreading canopy, trees planted closer than 6 m touch by the time they are six years old. A minimum tree spacing of 6 m within the rows and 9 m between rows (185 trees/ha) can be used if annual pruning is used to limit the canopy spread.
Pruning and shaping
During the first few years after planting, branches should be tipped every second flush to encourage a short, well-branched canopy capable of holding heavy crops in later years. When the tree begins to bear, an annual thinning of the canopy is necessary to reduce the density of foliage. Dense canopies harbour pests and prevent spray penetration. Topping, to keep the tree at a height between 3-5 m, and skirting, to remove low branches for under tree access, should also be done annually.
Flowering and fruit set
Haden flowers reliably in most Australian growing regions. However, cooler regions can experience problems with fruit set in some years. In these years, many nubbins (fruit without seeds) are produced. Nubbins are either shed late during fruit development or held full term, developing to only half or three-quarters the size of seeded fruit.
Pest and disease status
Haden is highly susceptible to anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), a major cause of fruit blackening. It can also be affected by stem end rots (Botryosphaeriaspp. and Lasiodiplodia theobromae) and bacterial black spot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferindicae). Haden is affected by major insect pests such as mango scale (Aulacaspis tubercularis), mango shoot caterpillar (Penicillaria jocosatrix) and tipborer (Chlumetia euthysticha), fruit flies and planthopper (Colgaroides acuminata), and is highly susceptible to pink wax scale (Ceroplastes rubens).
Like many varieties originating from Florida, Haden may suffer from internal breakdown disorders such as jelly seed and soft nose.
Harvesting and handling
Haden is a mid-season variety, maturing the same time as or a week later than Kensington Pride. The sap of Haden is not as caustic as Kensington Pride, though it will still cause sapburn if it comes into contact with skin during harvest. The fruit is fully mature when the red blush begins to lighten in colour and the lenticel spots turn from green to yellow.
Townsville, Burdekin and Bowen region
Pores in the skin of the fruit
Single embryo in seed, producing a seedling that is a genetic cross between the mother tree and pollen donor
Branched flower spike with many flowers
Seed with multiple embryos, producing seedlings that are genetically identical to parent tree