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Replacement, reduction and refinement (The 3 Rs)

The 'three Rs' is a basic philosophy of animal ethics and refers to the principles of replacement, reduction, and refinement.

In accordance with the Australian Code of Practice for the Care and Use of Animals for Scientific Purposes, when assessing proposals to use animals for scientific purposes, animal ethics committees will require evidence that the investigator or teacher has considered the replacement, reduction and refinement of animal use in their proposal.