Mango leaf gall midge

Have you seen mango leaf gall midge infestations?

Be on the lookout for infestations and report them to Biosecurity Queensland.

Early detection is vital.

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General information

Mango leaf gall midge (Procontarinia pustulata ) is a serious pest of mango leaves that is not present in Queensland mango production areas. It has been found in Papua New Guinea, eight Torres Strait Islands, and the very northern tip of Cape York Peninsula at Punsand Bay and Somerset.

This pest is indigenous to India, where there are many species of leaf gall midges found on mango, many of which are Procontarinia species. The insect has spread via infested plants to Mauritius, Kenya, Oman, South Africa and Malaysia.


Species name

Procontarinia pustulata has been detected in the Torres Strait and very northern tip of Cape York Peninsula. There are also other species of Procontarinia that cause galls on mango leaves.

What mango leaf gall midges look like

Midges are very small flies, 1-2 mm in length. The female lays eggs into the tissue of young leaves leaving a small reddish spot. The leaf tissue under the red spot becomes swollen and soft. Gall formation begins within seven days and attains a maximum diameter of 3-4 mm. Adults usually emerge from the underside of the leaf leaving the pupal skin protruding from the emergence hole.


The only known host of mango leaf gall midge is mango (Mangifera indica L).


Mango leaf gall midge is spread by wind currents and movement of infested plant material.

Symptoms and damage

Mango leaf gall midge produces wart-like galls on leaves resulting in reduced photosynthesis, leading to leaf drop and lowered fruit production. Younger trees may die while older trees fail to recover normal growth after repeated attacks.


There are no examples of eradication of the insect anywhere in the world.


The Biosecurity Regulation 2016 establishes Far Northern Biosecurity Zones and prevents the movement of mango leaf gall midge (including other Procontarinai species) and potential pest carriers, such as plants and soil, from the Cape York Peninsula into the rest of Queensland.


Peter Kolesik, Anthony D Rice, Glenn A Bellis and Michelle G Wirthensohn.(2009). Procontarinia pustulata, a new gall midge species (Diptera: ecidomyiidae) feeding on mango, Mangifera indica (Anarcadiaceae), in northern Australia and Papua New Guinea.  Australian Journal of Entomology, 48: 310-316.