Green eating

In Australia, mangoes have traditionally been eaten as a dessert fruit when they are soft and ripe. In recent years, the consumption of hard, green, mature mangoes in traditional Asian cuisine has increased, resulting in the development of a significant niche market. Many current mango varieties (Kensington Pride, R2E2, Keitt), prized as ripe eating fruit, do not  make good green eating varieties. Many Asian mango varieties have been selected especially for their superior green eating characteristics, while others can be eaten ripe or green.

Green eating mango varieties are distinguished from others by their flavour at the hard, green, mature stage. The flavour of most dessert mangoes at this stage is starchy and sour. Green eating fruit is generally sweet without a starchy flavour at the green, mature stage.

Green eating mangoes can be served in several ways. They can be sliced or grated fresh in salads, pickled (ma mung dong in Thai), soaked in water and sugar (ma mung chaein), salted and dried (ma mung khem), sliced in vinegar or fish sauces (ma mung nam pla wa arn), or eaten as a fruit.

Keow Savoey

Origin

Thailand

Synonyms

Kaiew Sawei, Kaow Sawoey, Khao Savoey, Kiew Sa Waei, Khiew Savoy, Kyo Savoy, Khieo Sawoei

Fruit description

Keow Savoey is an oblong, dark green fruit weighing 170-390 g with a polyembryonic seed.

Comments

In the Thai language, Keow means green and Savoey means eat. This variety is considered the best of the green eating varieties in Thailand, where it is prized for its crunchy flesh texture and nutty, sweet flavour. It is used mainly as a green salad vegetable. When ripe Keow Savoey has a very soft, green-yellow, semi-translucent pulp with overripe flavours.

Falan

Origin

Thailand

Synonyms

Falan, Thunder

Fruit description

Falan is a green, oblong shape fruit with no blush and a polyembryonic* seed. Falan is a medium-to-small tree with an open canopy.

Comments

Falan is another popular green eating variety in Thailand. When translated into English, Falan means Thunder. This variety is given its name because of its tendency, when mature, to split after a thunder storm or heavy rain. Because of this, it should not be picked in rainy weather and irrigation should be turned off before harvest.

Falan has a milder flavour than Keow Savoey and is generally eaten as slices in vinegar or fish sauces (mamung nam pla wa arn). In northern Thailand, this variety is induced to produce out-of-season fruit with potassium nitrate and paclobutrazol (Cultar®).

Rad

Origin

Thailand

Synonyms

Rade, Rhino, Ai Rad, and Rhinoceros

Fruit description

Rad is green oblong-shaped fruit without any blush. The fruit has an average fruit weight of 220 g and a polyembryonic seed.

Comments

Rad is a dual-purpose variety, being eaten green or as a ripe fruit. Translated into English, Rad means Rhino. It is given this name because the fruit frequently has a horn-like protrusion on the top half of the fruit.

Thailand exports this variety to Japan. Rad has a slight sour flavour when eaten green and is very sweet as a ripe fruit.

Lin Ngo Hou

Origin

Thailand

Synonyms

Cobra Tongue

Fruit description

Lin Ngo Hou is dark green and has a strong bittersweet flavour when eaten green. The fruit is thin with a distinctive elongated 'S' shape and polyembryonic seed.

Comments

Similar in shape to the Cedar Bay variety.

Nan Klangwan

Origin

Thailand

Synonyms

Elephants tusk, Nang Klang Wan, Nangsangwon, MG 184, Nga Chan, Nuwun Chan, Hong Xiang, Ya-9

Fruit description

Nan Klangwan is an elongated green fruit with a curved, tapering tip and polyembryonic seed. The fruit has an average weight of 300 g with a mild flavour. Nan Klangwan is a medium-to-large tree with a dense, spreading canopy.

Comments

Nan Klangwan is exported to Japan from Thailand. This variety is grown widely throughout East Asia; hence the many synonyms. Nan Klangwan is also eaten ripe.

Cedar Bay

Origin

South East Asia

Synonyms

Raboul, Golek, New Guinea long, Foo Fat, Ma 162

Fruit description

Cedar Bay is an elongated green fruit with a polyembryonic seed. Fruit can be quite large, weighing up to 800 g, with an average weight of 490 g.

Comments

This variety, or types very similar to it, are grown in many Asian countries and consumed as green eating fruit.

Pim Sane Mun

Origin

Thailand

Fruit description

This variety is green with no blush. It is elongated in shape.

Comments

Mun means Fatty. This cultivar has one of the strongest nutty flavours of the green eating types. Pim Sane Mun tends to produce many nubbins in the cooler growing regions. In Thailand, the nubbins are sold in the local markets as seedless mangoes.

Brooks

Origin

Florida, United States

Synonyms

Brooks late

Fruit description

Brooks is an ovate-shaped fruit with a green-yellow skin colour. Fruit weighs 300-800 g.

Comments

Traditionally, Brooks has not been eaten as a green eating mango. In Australia, the fruit is consumed both as green and ripe fruit. Brooks is a late season variety which generally sets fruit regularly and well but often produces many nubbins (small seedless fruit). This variety is sometimes used for pickling.

Xoai Tuong

Origin

Vietnam

Synonyms

Elephant, Cat Xoai Tuong

Fruit description

Xoai Tuong is an oblong-shaped mango that weighs 600-800 g and has a polyembryonic seed. When eaten green, the pulp is crisp with low fibre and is covered with a medium-thick green skin without any blush. The fruit has a strong, sour flavour. Xoai Tuong is a large, vigorous tree.

Comments

This is the most popular green eating variety in Vietnam. It is reputedly resistant to anthracnose but is affected by most insect pests. Xoai means mango and Tuong means elephant in Vietnamese.

Nam Doc Mai

Origin

Thailand

Synonyms

Nam Dog Mai, Nam Doc Mai

Fruit description

Nam Doc Mai is an oblong-shaped mango weighing 250-400 g. The fruit is an elongated shape with white green skin that develops a pink blush when exposed to the sun. The seed is polyembryonic.

Comments

Nam Doc Mai is generally not eaten as a green fruit in Thailand. However, when harvested for green eating, it is best picked when the skin takes on a whitish green colour. In Australia, most Nam Doc Mai grown is sold as green eating fruit.

Other green eating varieties

In addition to the green eating varieties described above, the following varieties are also eaten green. Some may not be available in Australia.

  • Nuwan Chan
  • Duncan
  • Nong Sang
  • Saiphon
  • Tekin
  • Tuong
  • Hong Sa
  • Gaylour
  • New Guinea Long
  • Sungi Siput
  • Gow
  • Mun
  • Lin Ngo Hou
  • Lebmue Dang
  • Maha Janka
  • Tong Dum
  • Ivory
  • Keow
  • Ngot.

Synonyms

Many of the green eating mangoes of Asian origin are grown in several countries. Consequently, the same or similar varieties are often known by different names. In some cases, the translation and spelling of Asian names into English has also caused confusion. The most recognised synonyms of varieties have been included here.

Harvesting

Green eating mangoes are harvested when the fruit is fully grown but has not yet begun to ripen. Some buyers will take less mature fruit from three-quarter size onwards.

Propagation

Most of the Asian green eating varieties of mango are polyembryonic and can be propagated by seed. Those with monoembryonic* seed must be grafted, as the seed will not produce seedlings that fruit true to type. Grafting mono- and polyembryonic varieties generally shortens the juvenile period and reduces the time from planting to cropping.

Marketing and consumer demand

In Asia, green eating mangoes are either consumed in their country of origin or exported to other Asian countries. In Australia, the market is currently limited to Asian restaurants and various Chinatown areas of the major cities. The wider Australian population has not yet been educated on the consumption of green mangoes. Currently, no green eating varieties of mangoes are exported.

Glossary

Dry Tropics

Townsville, Burdekin and Bowen region

Flushing

Periodic growth

Lenticels

Pores in the skin of the fruit

Monoembryonic

Single embryo in seed, producing a seedling that is a genetic cross between the mother tree and pollen donor

Panicle

Branched flower spike with many flowers

Polyembryonic

Seed with multiple embryos, producing seedlings that are genetically identical to parent tree

Ovate

Egg-shaped

Last updated 16 April 2014