Below is some information about pests and diseases that affect mushroom crops in Queensland. For more information, contact the Australian Mushroom Growers Association.
A variety of small fly and midge species are pests of mushrooms. The larvae feed on the fungal mycelium in the compost, but may also tunnel into the fruiting bodies.
A range of mite species may affect the mushroom crop. Some directly damage the fruiting bodies, some may attack the mycelium and some mites are predatory on other mites, fly eggs, nematodes or bacteria. Mite damage on the fruiting bodies often shows up as small cavities in the stem and cap similar in appearance to bacterial pit disease. Mycelium-eating mites can cause high yield losses. Mites are very small and easily transported on clothing and tools.
Springtails are commonly associated with compost and can damage the crop if present in high enough numbers. Slaters and millipedes may also cause damage to the fruiting bodies.
Nematodes will cause a loss in yield and brown, watery mushrooms and, in extreme cases, a soggy, smelly compost. Peat is a common source for nematodes and should be treated before use.
Diseases of mushrooms
Even though the mushroom itself is a fungus, it can in turn be affected by a range of fungal pathogens, which are listed in Table 1.
|Dactylium||Cobweb, mildew||White to pink, cobweb-like, fluffy mould|
|Diehlomyces||Calves brains/ false truffle||A competing fungus which produces brain-shaped fruiting bodies|
|Fusarium||Damping off||Mushrooms wither|
|Mycogone||Wet bubble / white mould||Dense white growth on gills|
|Papulaspora||Brown plaster mould||Brown plaster-like patches on casing|
|Scopulariopsis||White plaster mould||White plaster-like patches on casing|
|Trichoderma||Green mould||Dark green mould patches on casing spreading to lesions on stems|
|Verticillium||Dry bubble / brown spot||Brown irregular pitted areas on stems and caps. Distortion and splitting|
Pseudomonas (bacterial spot, bacterial or pit or brown blotch) cause yellow to brown blotches on the cap, which may exude sticky residues. Early symptoms are similar to verticilium.
A range of viral diseases attack mushrooms. Fruiting bodies that are either noticeably elongated or flattened, or gradually decreasing crops or flushes, should be examined. If viral diseases are suspected, seek professional advice on eradication.
Maintaining high levels of hygiene will assist any pest management program by reducing the number of problems that are likely to occur. If an outbreak does occur, ensure that you correctly identify the pest or disease before taking any action.
Several chemicals are registered for use on mushrooms in Queensland. Contact your local chemical reseller or the Australian Mushroom Growers Association for details. Always read the label and follow the enclosed instructions carefully.