Mango leaf gall midge

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Early detection is vital.

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  • Mango leaf gall midge infestations (Cambodia 2006)
    Mango leaf gall midge infestations (Cambodia 2006)
  • Galls on leaves caused by mango leaf-gall midge (Vietnam 2005)
    Figure 2: Galls on leaves caused by mango leaf gall midge. Source: Vietnam 2005 (Brian Thisleton)

General information

Mango leaf gall midge (Procontarinia pustulata ) is a serious pest of mango leaves that is not present in Queensland mango production areas. It has been found on eight Torres Strait Islands, and the very northern tip of Cape York Peninsula at Punsand Bay and Somerset.

This pest is indigenous to India, where there are many species of leaf gall midges found on mango, many of which are Procontarinia species. The insect has spread via infested plants to Mauritius, Kenya, Oman, South Africa and Malaysia.

Overview

Species name

Procontarinia pustulata has been detected in the Torres Strait and very northern tip of Cape York Peninsula. There are also other species of Procontarinia that cause galls on mango leaves.

What mango leaf gall midges look like

Midges are very small flies, 1-2 mm in length. The female lays eggs into the tissue of young leaves leaving a small reddish spot. The leaf tissue under the red spot becomes swollen and soft. Gall formation begins within seven days and attains a maximum diameter of 3-4 mm. Adults usually emerge from the underside of the leaf leaving the pupal skin protruding from the emergence hole.

Hosts

The only known host of mango leaf gall midge is mango (Mangifera indica L).

Spread

Mango leaf gall midge is spread by wind currents and movement of infested plant material.

Symptoms and damage

Mango leaf gall midge produces wart-like galls on leaves resulting in reduced photosynthesis, leading to leaf drop and lowered fruit production. Younger trees may die while older trees fail to recover normal growth after repeated attacks.

Control

There are no examples of eradication of the insect anywhere in the world.

Quarantine

The Biosecurity Regulation 2016 establishes Far Northern Biosecurity Zones and prevents the movement of mango leaf gall midge and potential pest carriers, such as plants and soil, from the Cape York Peninsula into the rest of Queensland.

Reference

Peter Kolesik, Anthony D Rice, Glenn A Bellis and Michelle G Wirthensohn.(2009). Procontarinia pustulata, a new gall midge species (Diptera: ecidomyiidae) feeding on mango, Mangifera indica (Anarcadiaceae), in northern Australia and Papua New Guinea.  Australian Journal of Entomology, 48: 310-316.

Last updated 21 December 2011